PURPOSE: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) using cryoablation (PVI-C) is a widespread therapy for treating symptomatic, recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF). The impacts of sex on efficacy and safety of PVI-C in a real-world clinical practice is lacking. In a multicenter prospective project, we evaluated whether clinical characteristics, procedure parameters, procedural complications, long-term AF recurrence rates, and/or AF-related symptoms differed according to sex in patients treated with PVI-C.
METHODS: Data from the study population were collected in the framework of the 1STOP ClinicalService® project, involving 47 Italian cardiology centers. Multivariable statistical analyses were conducted to determine if any baseline clinical characteristics impacted the efficacy of PVI-C.
RESULTS: From April 2012, 2125 patients (27% female, 59 ± 11 years, 73% paroxysmal AF, and mean left atrial diameter = 42 ± 8 mm) underwent PVI-C. According to baseline characteristics, women were more likely to be older, with higher clinical risk scores (e.g., CHA2DS2-VASc), and a higher number of tested antiarrhythmic drugs before the index PVI-C procedure. Male and female cohorts showed comparable procedure time (mean = 107.7 ± 46.8 min) and a similar incidence of periprocedural complications (4.5% overall), even after adjustment for baseline characteristics (P = 0.880). The multivariable analyses demonstrated that the strongest predictor of AF recurrences was sex (0.74; 95% CI 0.58-0.93; P = 0.011). After propensity score adjustment, the hazard ratio from a multivariable model, which included age and AF type (persistent) as covariates, was 0.76 (0.60-0.97) (P = 0.025).
CONCLUSIONS: According to the 1STOP project, in a real-world setting, PVI-C was relatively safe regardless of the patient's sex; however, when considering efficacy of the procedure, female patients had a lower long-term efficacy in comparison to males.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01007474.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 2019|