Sexual Dimorphism of Coronavirus 19 Morbidity and Lethality

Maria Luisa Brandi, Andrea Giustina

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic showed a different severity in the disease between males and females. Men have been becoming severely ill at a higher rate than women. These data along with an age-dependent disease susceptibility and mortality in the elderly suggest that sex hormones are the main factors in determining the clinical course of the infection. The differences in aging males versus females and the role of sex hormones in key phenotypes of COVID-19 infection are described in this review. Recommendations based on a dimorphic approach for males and females suggest a sex-specific management the disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)918-927
Number of pages10
JournalTrends in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • androgen
  • coronavirus disease 2019
  • oestrogen
  • pandemic
  • sexual dimorphism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


Dive into the research topics of 'Sexual Dimorphism of Coronavirus 19 Morbidity and Lethality'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this