Sexually transmitted infections and prostate cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Saverio Caini, Sara Gandini, Maria Dudas, Viviane Bremer, Ettore Severi, Alin Gherasim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most incident cancer and the sixth cause of death by cancer in men worldwide. Despite extensive research efforts, no modifiable risk factors have been consistently identified for PC risk. A number of studies have focused on possible relationships between sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and PC. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between infection caused by Neisseria gonorrheae, Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Herpes Simplex Virus types 1 and 2, Human Herpes Virus 8 and Cytomegalovirus, and PC. We conducted a comprehensive, systematic bibliographic search of medical literature to identify relevant studies. We calculated summary relative risk (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between each STI and PC through random effect models. Subgroup, meta-regression and sensitivity analyses were carried out to detect between-study heterogeneity and bias. We included 47 studies published between 1971 and 2011. Men who reported having ever had any STI in lifetime had an increased PC (SRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.19-1.92). We found a significantly increased PC risk in men having had gonorrhoea (SRR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.37). No other single STI was significantly associated with PC. Due to high incidence of both STIs and PC worldwide, prevention of STIs may help preventing a considerable number of PC cases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-338
Number of pages10
JournalCancer Epidemiology
Volume38
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • Gonorrhoea
  • Meta-analysis
  • Prostate cancer
  • Review
  • Sexually transmitted diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology
  • Epidemiology
  • Medicine(all)

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