Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is the offending agent in post-diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and acute kidney failure, with thrombi occluding the renal microvasculature. Endothelial dysfunction has been recognized as the trigger event in the development of microangiopathic processes. Glomerular endothelial cells are susceptible to the toxic effects of Stxs that, via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, induce the expression of genes encoding for adhesion molecules and chemokines, culminating in leukocyte adhesion and platelet thrombus formation on the activated endothelium. Complement activation via the alternative pathway has been seen in patients during the acute phase of STEC-associated HUS. Experimental evidence has highlighted the role of complement proteins in driving glomerular endothelium toward a thrombogenic phenotype. At the glomerular level, podocytes are also an important target of Stx-induced complement activation. Glomerular injury as a consequence of podocyte dysfunction and loss is thus a mechanism that might affect long-term renal outcomes in the disease. New approaches to targeting the complement system may be useful therapeutic options for patients with STEC-HUS.