Short-term and long-term sequelae in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)

Stefania Longo, Lina Bollani, Lidia Decembrino, Amelia Di Comite, Mauro Angelini, M. Stronati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR) is defined as a rate of growth of a fetus that is less than normal for the growth potential of the fetus (for that particular gestational age). Small for Gestational Age (SGA) is defined infant born following IUGR, with a weight at birth below the 10th percentile.Suboptimal fetal growth occurring in IUGR fetuses is an important cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The acute neonatal consequences of IUGR include metabolic and hematological disturbances, and disrupted thermoregulation; in addition, respiratory distress (RDS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may contribute to perinatal morbidity. Metabolic disturbances are related to glucose and fatty acid metabolism. It is well-known that individuals who display poor growth in utero are at significantly increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance (the so-called metabolic syndrome, MS). MS ultimately leads to the premature development of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, short stature in children and adults, premature adrenarche, and the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are endocrinological sequelae of IUGR. (8) Early onset growth delay and prematurity significantly increase the risk for neurological sequelae and motor and cognitive delay.Future prospective studies need to investigate risk factors for infants who are SGA. If reliable prediction can be achieved, there is potential to reduce future perinatal morbidity and mortality, and long term consequences among SGA babies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)222-225
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
Volume26
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2013

Keywords

  • Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR)
  • Metabolic syndrome (MS)
  • Neurological sequelae
  • Perinatal morbidity
  • Small for Gestational Age (SGA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

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