Background: In severe neonatal hyperammonemia, extracorporeal dialysis (ECD) provides higher ammonium clearance than peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, there are limited outcome data in relation to dialysis modality.
Methods: Data from infants with hyperammonemia secondary to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) treated with dialysis were collected in six Italian centers and retrospectively analyzed.
Results: Forty-five neonates born between 1990 and 2011 were enrolled in the study. Of these, 23 were treated with PD and 22 with ECD (14 with continuous venovenous hemodialysis [CVVHD], 5 with continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis [CAVHD], 3 with hemodialysis [HD]). Patients treated with PD experienced a shorter duration of predialysis coma, while those treated with HD had a shorter ammonium decay time compared with all the other patients (p <0.05). No difference in ammonium reduction rate was observed between patients treated with PD, CAVHD or CVVHD. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency (CPS) was significantly associated with increased risk of death (OR: 9.37 [1.52–57.6], p = 0.016). Predialysis ammonium levels were significantly associated with a composite end-point of death or neurological sequelae (adjusted OR: 1.13 [1.02–1.27] per 100 μmol/l, p = 0.026). No association was found between outcome and dialysis modality.
Conclusions: In this study, a delayed ECD treatment was not superior to PD in improving the short-term outcome of neonates with hyperammonemia secondary to IEM.
- Continuous venovenous hemodialysis
- Inborn errors of metabolism
- Neonatal hyperammonemia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health