Given the global burden of tuberculosis, shortened treatment regimens with existing or repurposed drugs are needed to contribute to tuberculosis control. The long duration of treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB) is associated with nonadherence and loss to follow up, and the treatment success rate of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is low (approximately 50%) with longer regimens. In this review article, we report recent advances and ongoing clinical trials aimed at shortening regimens for DSTB and MDR-TB. We discuss the role of high-dose rifampin, as well as that of clofazimine and linezolid in regimens for DS-TB. There are at least 5 ongoing clinical trials and 17 observational studies and clinical trials evaluating shorter regimens for DS-TB and MDRTB, respectively. We also report the results of observational studies and clinical trials evaluating a standardized nine-month moxifloxacin-based regimen for MDR-TB. Further studies, especially randomized clinical trials, are needed to evaluate regimens including newer drugs, drugs proven to be or highly likely to be efficacious, and all-oral drugs in an effort to eliminate the need for injectable drugs.
- Drug resistance, Bacterial
- Tuberculosis, Multidrug-resistant/drug therapy
- Tuberculosis/drug therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine