Should we be testing for urogenital Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum in men and women? - a position statement from the European STI Guidelines Editorial Board

P. Horner, G. Donders, M. Cusini, M. Gomberg, J. S. Jensen, M. Unemo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

At present, we have no evidence that we are doing more good than harm detecting and subsequently treating Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum colonizations/infections. Consequently, routine testing and treatment of asymptomatic or symptomatic men and women for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum are not recommended. Asymptomatic carriage of these bacteria is common, and the majority of individuals do not develop any disease. Although U. urealyticum has been associated with urethritis in men, it is probably not causal unless a high load is present (likely carriage in 40-80% of detected cases). The extensive testing, detection and subsequent antimicrobial treatment of these bacteria performed in some settings may result in the selection of antimicrobial resistance, in these bacteria, 'true' STI agents, as well as in the general microbiota, and substantial economic cost for society and individuals, particularly women. The commercialization of many particularly multiplex PCR assays detecting traditional non-viral STIs together with M. hominis, U. parvum and/or U. urealyticum has worsened this situation. Thus, routine screening of asymptomatic men and women or routine testing of symptomatic individuals for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum is not recommended. If testing of men with symptomatic urethritis is undertaken, traditional STI urethritis agents such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium and, in settings where relevant, Trichomonas vaginalis should be excluded prior to U. urealyticum testing and quantitative species-specific molecular diagnostic tests should be used. Only men with high U. urealyticum load should be considered for treatment; however, appropriate evidence for effective treatment regimens is lacking. In symptomatic women, bacterial vaginosis (BV) should always be tested for and treated if detected. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1845-1851
JournalJournal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
Volume32
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Fingerprint

Mycoplasma hominis
Ureaplasma
Ureaplasma urealyticum
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Guidelines
Urethritis
Bacteria
Venereology
Bacterial Vaginosis
Trichomonas vaginalis
Molecular Pathology
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Chlamydia trachomatis
Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Microbiota
Therapeutics
Dermatology
Routine Diagnostic Tests
Economics
Costs and Cost Analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

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title = "Should we be testing for urogenital Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum in men and women? - a position statement from the European STI Guidelines Editorial Board",
abstract = "At present, we have no evidence that we are doing more good than harm detecting and subsequently treating Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum colonizations/infections. Consequently, routine testing and treatment of asymptomatic or symptomatic men and women for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum are not recommended. Asymptomatic carriage of these bacteria is common, and the majority of individuals do not develop any disease. Although U. urealyticum has been associated with urethritis in men, it is probably not causal unless a high load is present (likely carriage in 40-80{\%} of detected cases). The extensive testing, detection and subsequent antimicrobial treatment of these bacteria performed in some settings may result in the selection of antimicrobial resistance, in these bacteria, 'true' STI agents, as well as in the general microbiota, and substantial economic cost for society and individuals, particularly women. The commercialization of many particularly multiplex PCR assays detecting traditional non-viral STIs together with M. hominis, U. parvum and/or U. urealyticum has worsened this situation. Thus, routine screening of asymptomatic men and women or routine testing of symptomatic individuals for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum is not recommended. If testing of men with symptomatic urethritis is undertaken, traditional STI urethritis agents such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium and, in settings where relevant, Trichomonas vaginalis should be excluded prior to U. urealyticum testing and quantitative species-specific molecular diagnostic tests should be used. Only men with high U. urealyticum load should be considered for treatment; however, appropriate evidence for effective treatment regimens is lacking. In symptomatic women, bacterial vaginosis (BV) should always be tested for and treated if detected. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology",
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AU - Donders, G.

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