Signaling events involved in cytokine and chemokine production induced by secretory phospholipase A2 in human lung macrophages

Francescopaolo Granata, Annunziata Frattini, Stefania Loffredo, Annalisa Del Prete, Silvano Sozzani, Gianni Marone, Massimo Triggiani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) are enzymes released during inflammatory reactions. These molecules activate immune cells by mechanisms either related or unrelated to their enzymatic activity. We examined the signaling events activated by group IA (GIA) and group IB (GIB) sPLA2 in human lung macrophages leading to cytokine/chemokine production. sPLA2 induced the production of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CXCL8), whereas no effect was observed on IL-12, CCL1, CCL5 and CCL22. sPLA2 induced the phosphorylation of the MAPK p38 and ERK1/2, and inhibition of these kinases by SB203580 and PD98059, respectively, reduced TNF-α and CXCL8 release. Suppression of sPLA2 enzymatic activity by a site-directed inhibitor influenced neither cytokine/chemokine production nor activation of MAPK, whereas alteration of sPLA2 secondary structure suppressed both responses. GIA activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) /Akt system and a specific inhibitor of PI3 K (LY294002) reduced sPLA2-induced release of TNF-α and CXCL8. GIA promoted phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and inhibition of NF-κB by MG-132 and 6-amino-4-phenoxyphenylethylamino-quinazoline suppressed the production of TNF-α and CXCL8. These results indicate that sPLA2 induce the production of cytokines and chemokines in human macrophages by a non-enzymatic mechanism involving the PI3 K/Akt system, the MAPK p38 and ERK1/2 and NF-κB.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1938-1950
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Journal of Immunology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2006


  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • Macrophages
  • Secretory phospholipases A
  • Signal transduction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology


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