Muscle regeneration, characterized by the activation and proliferation of satellite cells and other precursors, is accompanied by an inflammatory response and the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), necessary to remove cellular debris and to mechanically support newly generated myofibers and activated satellite cells. Muscle repair can be considered concluded when the tissue architecture, vascularization, and innervation have been restored. Alterations in these connected mechanisms can impair muscle regeneration, leading to the replacement of functional muscle tissue with a fibrotic scar. In the present review, we will discuss the cellular mediators of fibrosis and how the altered expression and secretion of soluble mediators, such as IL-6 and IGF-1, can modulate regulatory networks involved in the altered regeneration and fibrosis during aging and diseases.
- Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism
- Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism
- Signal Transduction