SIGNOR: A database of causal relationships between biological entities

Livia Perfetto, Leonardo Briganti, Alberto Calderone, Andrea Cerquone Perpetuini, Marta Iannuccelli, Francesca Langone, Luana Licata, Milica Marinkovic, Anna Mattioni, Theodora Pavlidou, Daniele Peluso, Lucia Lisa Petrilli, Stefano Pirró, Daniela Posca, Elena Santonico, Alessandra Silvestri, Filomena Spada, Luisa Castagnoli, Gianni Cesareni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Assembly of large biochemical networks can be achieved by confronting new cell-specific experimental data with an interaction subspace constrained by prior literature evidence. The SIGnaling Network Open Resource, SIGNOR (available on line at, was developed to support such a strategy by providing a scaffold of prior experimental evidence of causal relationships between biological entities. The core of SIGNOR is a collection of approximately 12 000 manuallyannotated causal relationships between over 2800 human proteins participating in signal transduction. Other entities annotated in SIGNOR are complexes, chemicals, phenotypes and stimuli. The information captured in SIGNOR can be represented as a signed directed graph illustrating the activation/inactivation relationships between signalling entities. Each entry is associated to the post-translational modifications that cause the activation/inactivation of the target proteins. More than 4900 modified residues causing a change in protein concentration or activity have been curated and linked to the modifying enzymes (about 351 human kinases and 94 phosphatases). Additional modifications such as ubiquitinations, sumoylations, acetylations and their effect on the modified target proteins are also annotated. This wealth of structured information can support experimental approaches based on multi-parametric analysis of cell systems after physiological or pathological perturbations and to assemble large logic models.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)D548-D554
JournalNucleic Acids Research
Issue numberD1
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics


Dive into the research topics of 'SIGNOR: A database of causal relationships between biological entities'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this