Background As the clinical effects of the available α1-adrenoceptors (ARs) blockers are usually considered comparable for treatment in patients suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to prostatic enlargement, officially recognised guidelines do not make specific recommendations regarding the choice of which agent should be considered according to the patient's characteristics. Aim To analyse data supporting the use of silodosin, a highly selective once-daily dosing α1-ARs blocker, in different daily clinical practice scenarios. Materials and methods A structured literature review was performed using data retrieved from articles assessing the role of silodosin in the management of LUTS secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A literature search of English language publications was performed using MEDLINE® and Web of Science from 2000 to 2012 using the terms LUTS; BPH; silodosin; α1-ARs blockers. The papers with the highest level of evidence were identified and represent the basis of the present review. Results Available data coming from basic research analyses, randomised trials and prospective studies showed that silodosin is efficacious for the initial management of patients with LUTS. Clinical developmental safety data from patients receiving silodosin with concomitant antihypertensive therapy do not indicate an increase in risk of orthostatic hypotension. In this context, a recent study demonstrated that silodosin can be safely administered to patients who are consensually assuming phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. A recent randomised crossover study comparing the efficacy of silodosin and tamsulosin in patients with LUTS showed that further significant improvement was observed after switching to silodosin treatment, while worsening or little improvement was observed after switching to tamsulosin treatment. Preliminary results seem to demonstrate a potential role of silodosin in the treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and to facilitate ureteral stone passage, as well. Discussion When considering the above cited pharmacological and clinical characteristics of the drug, silodosin can be considered in the following clinical scenario: patients suffering from moderate-severe nocturia, patients with low normal blood pressure levels and patients concomitantly treated with antihypertensive medications, patients concomitantly treated with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, patients not satisfied (for efficacy or tolerability) with previous treatment with other α1-ARs blockers. Conclusion Silodosin is efficacious for the initial management of patients with LUTS. Silodosin has a good cardiovascular safety profile and can be considered an option in patients with cardiovascular co-morbidities. It seems to be especially beneficial in patients with nocturia alone or presenting with the symptomatic trial nocturia-frequency-incomplete emptying. Patients on phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors treatment can be safely managed with silodosin.
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