Objective: To report the first performance of simultaneous bilateral percutaneous nephrolithotomy and flexible ureteroscopy carried out in tandem by 2 different surgeons in a patient with bilateral medium-sized renal calculi, describing step-by-step details of the surgical technique. Materials and Methods: A 46-year-old man, affected with hyperparathyroidism, was diagnosed with asymptomatic bilateral medium-sized renal stones. An abdominal noncontrast computed tomography scan revealed a left single kidney stone with a maximum diameter of 16 mm and 2 right renal stones located in the pelvis and in the lower calyx, of 21 and 19 mm in maximum diameter, respectively. A bilateral simultaneous percutaneous nephrolithotomy on the right side and flexible ureteroscopy on the left side were therefore carried out. Results: The total operative time was 80 minutes. No intra- or postoperative complications were experienced. On postoperative day 1, the creatinine serum level was stable (0.7 mg/dL); he was discharged home 48 hours later. Ureteral stents were removed 7 days after the procedure. At 2 weeks follow-up, an abdominal noncontrast computed tomography scan showed a stone-free status and no changes in renal function were detected. Conclusion: A simultaneous bilateral endoscopic manipulation is feasible and safe and it can be offered in the presence of medium-sized bilateral renal stones in high-volume centers by experienced surgeons.
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