OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the simultaneous administration of GLP-1 and insulin may increase their vasodilatory, antiinflammatory, and antioxidant action in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In two groups of persons with type 2 diabetes, two sets of experiments were performed. The first group had two normoglycemic-normoinsulinemic clamps with or without GLP-1 and two normoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with or without GLP-1. The second group had two hyperglycemic-normoinsulinemic clamps and two hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with or without GLP-1. RESULTS: During the normoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) increased, while soluble intercellular adhesionmolecule (sICAM-1), plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), nitrotyrosine, and interleukin (IL)-6 decreased compared with normoglycemic-normoinsulinemic clamp. Similar results were obtained with the infusion ofGLP-1 during the normoglycemic-normoinsulinemic clamp. The combination of hyperinsulinemia and GLP-1 in normoglycemia was accompanied by a further FMD increase and sICAM-1, 8-iso-PGF2α, nitrotyrosine, and IL-6 decrease. During the hyperglycemic-normoinsulinemic clamp, FMD significantly decreased, while sICAM-1, 8-iso-PGF2α, nitrotyrosine, and IL-6 significantly increased. When hyperglycemia was accompanied by hyperinsulinemia or by the simultaneous infusion of GLP-1, these phenomena were attenuated. The simultaneous presence of hyperinsulinemia and GLP-1 had an increased beneficial effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the combination of insulin and GLP-1 is more effective than insulin or GLP-1 alone in improving endothelial dysfunction, infl ammation, and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialised Nursing