Background: Hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia (Hz/Hc) is a distinct autoinflammatory entity involving extremely high serum concentrations of the proinflammatory alarmin myeloid-related protein (MRP) 8/14 (S100A8/S100A9 and calprotectin). Objective: We sought to characterize the genetic cause and clinical spectrum of Hz/Hc. Methods: Proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 1 (PSTPIP1) gene sequencing was performed in 14 patients with Hz/Hc, and their clinical phenotype was compared with that of 11 patients with pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne (PAPA) syndrome. PSTPIP1-pyrin interactions were analyzed by means of immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Astructural model of the PSTPIP1 dimer was generated. Cytokine profiles were analyzed by using the multiplex immunoassay, and MRP8/14 serum concentrations were analyzed by using an ELISA. Results: Thirteen patients were heterozygous for a missense mutation in the PSTPIP1 gene, resulting in a p.E250K mutation, and 1 carried a mutation resulting in p.E257K. Both mutations substantially alter the electrostatic potential of the PSTPIP1 dimer model in a region critical for protein-protein interaction. Patients with Hz/Hc have extremely high MRP8/14 concentrations (2045±1300μg/mL) compared with those with PAPA syndrome (116±74μg/mL) and have a distinct clinical phenotype. Aspecific cytokine profile is associated with Hz/Hc. Hz/Hc mutations altered protein binding of PSTPIP1, increasing interaction with pyrin through phosphorylation of PSTPIP1. Conclusion: Mutations resulting in charge reversal in the y-domain of PSTPIP1 (E→K) and increased interaction with pyrin cause a distinct autoinflammatory disorder defined by clinical and biochemical features not found in patients with PAPA syndrome, indicating a unique genotype-phenotype correlation for mutations in the PSTPIP1 gene. This is the first inborn autoinflammatory syndrome in which inflammation is driven by uncontrolled release of members of the alarmin family.
- Hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia
- Myeloid-related protein 8/14
- Proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 1
- Pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne syndrome
- S100 proteins
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy