CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a severe global developmental delay and early-onset seizures. Notably, patients show distinctive visual abnormalities often clinically diagnosed as cortical visual impairment. However, the involvement of cerebral cortical dysfunctions in the origin of the symptoms is poorly understood. CDD mouse models also display visual deficits, and cortical visual responses can be used as a robust biomarker in CDKL5 mutant mice. A deeper understanding of the circuits underlying the described visual deficits is essential for directing preclinical research and translational approaches. Here, we addressed this question in two ways: first, we performed an in-depth morphological analysis of the visual pathway, from the retina to the primary visual cortex (V1), of CDKL5 null mice. We found that the lack of CDKL5 produced no alteration in the organization of retinal circuits. Conversely, CDKL5 mutants showed reduced density and altered morphology of spines and decreased excitatory synapse marker PSD95 in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and in V1. An increase in the inhibitory marker VGAT was selectively present in V1. Second, using a conditional CDKL5 knockout model, we showed that selective cortical deletion of CDKL5 from excitatory cells is sufficient to produce abnormalities of visual cortical responses, demonstrating that the normal function of cortical circuits is dependent on CDKL5. Intriguingly, these deficits were associated with morphological alterations of V1 excitatory and inhibitory synaptic contacts. In summary, this work proposes cortical circuit structure and function as a critically important target for studying CDD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology