Six weeks of structured exercise training and hypocaloric diet increases the probability of ovulation after clomiphene citrate in overweight and obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized controlled trial

S. Palomba, A. Falbo, F. Giallauria, T. Russo, M. Rocca, A. Tolino, F. Zullo, F. Orio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background Clomiphene citrate (CC) is the first-line therapy for the induction of ovulation in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but ∼20 of patients are unresponsive. The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that a 6-week intervention that consisted of structured exercise training (SET) and hypocaloric diet increases the probability of ovulation after CC in overweight and obese CC-resistant PCOS patients. Methods A cohort of 96 overweight and obese CC-resistant PCOS patients was enrolled consecutively in a three-arm randomized, parallel, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial. The three interventions were: SET plus hypocaloric diet for 6 weeks (Group A); 2 weeks of observation followed by one cycle of CC therapy (Group B); and SET plus hypocaloric diet for 6 weeks, with one cycle of CC after the first 2 weeks (Group C). The primary end-point was the ovulation rate. Other reproductive data, as well as anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic data, were also collected and considered as secondary end points. Results After 6 weeks of SET plus hypocaloric diet, the ovulation rate was significantly (P =0.008) higher in Group C [12/32 (37.5)] than in Groups A [4/32 (12.5)] and B [3/32 (9.4)] with relative risks of 3.9 [95 confidence interval (CI) 1.1-8.3; P = 0.035] and 4.0 (95 CI 1.2-12.8; P = 0.020) compared with Groups A and B, respectively. Compared with baseline, in Groups A and C, a significant improvement in clinical and biochemical androgen and insulin sensitivity indexes was observed. In the same two groups, the insulin sensitivity index was significantly (P <0.05) better than that in Group B. Conclusions In overweight and obese CC-resistant PCOS patients, a 6-week intervention of SET and a hypocaloric diet was effective in increasing the probability of ovulation under CC treatment.The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT0100468.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2783-2791
Number of pages9
JournalHuman Reproduction
Volume25
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2010

Keywords

  • clomiphene citrate
  • diet
  • exercise
  • infertility
  • polycystic ovary syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Reproductive Medicine

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