PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes: (1) the structural and functional features coupled with pathophysiological factors responsible of skeletal muscle myopathy (SMM) in both heart failure with reduced (HFrEF) and preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction and (2) the role of exercise as treatment of SMM in these HF-related phenotypes.
RECENT FINDINGS: The recent literature showed two main phenotypes of heart failure (HF): (1) HFrEF primarily due to a systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle and (2) HFpEF, mainly related to a diastolic dysfunction. Exercise intolerance is one of most disabling symptoms of HF and it is shown that persists after the normalization of the central hemodynamic impairments by therapy and/or cardiac surgery including heart transplant. A specific skeletal muscle myopathy (SMM) has been defined as one of the main causes of exercise intolerance in HF. The SMM has been well described in the last 20 years in the HFrEF; on the contrary, few studies are available in HFpEF. Recent evidences have revealed that exercise training counteracts HF-related SMM and in turn ameliorates exercise intolerance.