Clinical findings Sleep enuresis (SE) is characterized by recurrent involuntary voiding of urine during sleep that occurs at least twice a week, for at least 3 consecutive months, in a child who is at least 5 years of age. The International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) has established a clinical terminology about SE and other forms of voiding dysfunction. Incontinence is an uncontrollable leakage of urine after the age of 5 years or after the age of attending bladder control, and enuresis (or night-time incontinence) is defined as an intermittent incontinence only while sleeping. This condition is considered primary (PNE) if the involuntary discharge of urine during sleep has been present since birth and has not been interrupted by consistently dry periods, while it is considered as secondary (SNE) if the child or adult had previously been dry during sleep for six consecutive months. In a prospective study, the presentation of the patient with PNE or SNE was found to be similar, suggesting that, in the majority of cases, the pathogenesis of SNE is not different from that of PNE. The clinical severity of the disorder can be defined on the basis of the number of events that occur during a week and, specifically, is defined as: infrequent (1 or 2 events per week), moderate (3−5 events per week) and severe (6 or 7 events per week).
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