Smoke exposure and cardio-metabolic profile in youth with type 1 diabetes

Valeria Calcaterra, Jonathan P. Winickoff, Catherine Klersy, Luca Maria Schiano, Rossella Bazzano, Chiara Montalbano, Valeria Musella, Corrado Regalbuto, Daniela Larizza, Hellas Cena

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: To evaluate the relationship between smoking and metabolic parameters in patients affected by type 1 diabetes (T1D). Patients and methods: We enrolled 104 children and young adults (50 females and 54 males) with T1D (aged 16.4 ± 8.6 years). The subjects were divided into three groups according to their smoking habits: no smoking (NS), passive smoking (PS), active smoking (AS). The physical examination of the participants included nutritional status assessment by anthropometry and pubertal stage according to Marshall and Tanner as well as blood pressure measurement. In all patients, metabolic blood assays including fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. Insulin resistance was determined by glucose disposal rate (eGDR). Physical activity was also recorded. Results: Significant differences in biochemical and functional parameters among the three groups were demonstrated, in particular for systolic (p = 0.002) and diastolic pressure (p = 0.02) and eGDR (p = 0.039). No differences in daily insulin dose (p = 0.75) and glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.39) were observed. AS group had significantly higher blood pressure (p < 0.05) and lower eGDR (p ≤ 0.001) compared to NS and PS. Significant difference was also detected between PS and NS in systolic and diastolic (p = 0.02) pressure and eGDR (p = 0.01). In a multivariable model adjusted for age, gender, BMI and physical activity, smoking habits did not maintain any independent association with metabolic parameters. Conclusion: This is the first study in a Mediterranean population, looking at tobacco smoke and cardio-metabolic factors in youth with T1D. The relationship between smoking and unfavorable metabolic profile was demonstrated. On the basis of these findings, smoking tobacco should be considered an important modifiable risk factor for young patients with diabetes mellitus, highlighting the need for intensified smoking prevention and cessation programs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number53
JournalDiabetology and Metabolic Syndrome
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jul 6 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardio-metabolic profile
  • Children
  • Smoke
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Young adults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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