Serum smooth muscle autoantibodies (SMA) react with different proteins (actin, tubulin, vimentin, desmin, cytokeratins) of the cytoskeletal components (microfilaments, microtubuli, intermediate filaments). Their detection can be the hallmark of autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) or celiac disease; however, they can also be observed in viral diseases such as chronic hepatitis C and infectious mononucleosis. When present at high titers (> 1:80), they are considered sensitive markers of AIH, being found in up to 80% of cases. Within the spectrum of SMA, antiactin antibodies are the most specific for the diagnosis of AIH, whereas no convincing evidence of their pathogenetic or prognostic value has been provided yet. SMA of the immunoglobulin (Ig)A class with antiactin specificity have been described in a large majority of celiac patients with severe mucosal damage. The classical immunomorphologic techniques remain the gold standards for SMA testing; in addition, the new immunochemical tests with purified antigens appear to be a promising complementary approach.
|Title of host publication||Autoantibodies: Third Edition|
|Number of pages||5|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2013|
- Indirect immunofluorescence
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)