Sniffin' Sticks and olfactory system imaging in patients with Kallmann syndrome

Giancarlo Ottaviano, Elena Cantone, Arianna D'Errico, Alessandro Salvalaggio, Valentina Citton, Bruno Scarpa, Angela Favaro, Antonio Agostino Sinisi, Raffaele Liuzzi, Guglielmo Bonanni, Francesco Di Salle, Andrea Elefante, Renzo Manara, Alberto Staffieri, Alessandro Martini, Arturo Brunetti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The relationship between olfactory function, rhinencephalon and forebrain changes in Kallmann syndrome (KS) have not been adequately investigated. We evaluated a large cohort of male KS patients using Sniffin' Sticks and MRI in order to study olfactory bulb (OB) volume, olfactory sulcus (OS) depth, cortical thickness close to the OS, and olfactory phenotype. Methods: Olfaction was assessed administering Sniffin' Sticks®, in 38 KS patients and 17 controls (by means of Screening 12 test®). All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study OB volume, sulcus depth, and cortical thickness. Results: Compared to controls, KS patients showed smaller OB volume (p

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)855-861
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Forum of Allergy and Rhinology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2015


  • Cortical thickness
  • Kallmann syndrome
  • MRI
  • N-butanol
  • Odor discrimination
  • Odor identification
  • Odor threshold
  • Olfactory bulb volume
  • Olfactory sulcus depth
  • Sniffin' Sticks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Otorhinolaryngology


Dive into the research topics of 'Sniffin' Sticks and olfactory system imaging in patients with Kallmann syndrome'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this