AIMS: Inflammation plays a role in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes macroangiopathy. Interleukin 33 (IL-33) drives production of Th2-associated cytokines. The soluble form of suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) acting as a decoy receptor blocks IL-33 and tones down Th2 inflammatory response. We investigated the role of sST2 as a predictor of CV and all-cause mortality in a cohort of patients affected by established atherosclerotic disease.
METHODS: 399 patients with atherosclerotic disease from the Tor Vergata Atherosclerosis Registry performed follow-up every year by phone interview. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular death and the secondary endpoint was death for any other disease.
RESULTS: sST2 plasma levels were significantly increased from normal glucose-tolerant patients to patients with history of type 2 diabetes (p < 0.00001). Levels of sST2 were significantly correlated with fasting plasma glucose (R = 0.16, p = 0.002), HbA1c (R = 0.17, p = 0.002), and HOMA (R = 0.16, p = 0.004). Dividing patients in tertiles of sST2 levels, those belonging to the highest tertile showed an increased rate of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, (all-cause mortality p = 0.045 and CVD mortality p = 0.02). A multivariate Cox analysis revealed that sST2 increased the risk in cardiovascular mortality per SD by hazard ratio 1.050 (95% CI 1.006-1.097, p = 0.025) after adjustment for age and hs-CRP while it did not significantly change the risk for all-cause mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: High circulating level of sST2 is associated to increased CVD mortality and markers of metabolic dysfunction in subjects with atherosclerotic disease.
- Aged, 80 and over
- Blood Glucose/drug effects
- Cardiovascular Diseases/blood
- Cause of Death
- Cohort Studies
- Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood
- Diabetic Angiopathies/blood
- Disease Progression
- Follow-Up Studies
- Glucose Metabolism Disorders/blood
- Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/blood
- Middle Aged
- Risk Factors