Objectives: To define the normative values of scrotal vein diameters, investigate the eventual presence and characteristics of scrotal reflux in healthy subjects, and describe its implication for the diagnosis of scrotal varicocele. Methods: Color-Doppler ultrasonography was performed on a population of 145 healthy, symptomless subjects, with clinical examinations and semen analyses within normal limits. Results: The upper limit of the scrotal veins diameter (3.7-3.8 mm) exceeds values presently employed for a diagnosis of varicocele. Furthermore, a high percentage of healthy subjects (53%) were found to have reflux in the scrotal veins, currently considered one of the criteria for diagnosing varicocele, especially in its subclinical form. Conclusions: To reduce the risk of misinterpretations between the various specialists involved in Color-Doppler ultrasonography and urologists, quantitative data of the scrotal veins (i.e., maximum diameter and the presence, velocity, and duration of reflux) should be described in reports of sonographic examinations performed for scrotal varicocele.
- Color-Doppler ultrasonography
- Normative study
- Scrotal varicocele
ASJC Scopus subject areas