Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a leading cause of splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT). SVT is observed in all MPNs and frequently affects young patients. Therapy should be addressed to three main goals: preventing thrombosis recurrence, managing the underlying MPN, and supporting liver dysfunction. Life-long oral anticoagulation with Vitamin K antagonists is the cornerstone of the antithrombotic treatment. However, recurrences of SVT or other thrombosis may occur in 15-20% of patients. Direct oral anticoagulants can represent an alternative and preliminary data encourage comparative studies. Survival of patients with SVT in MPN is primarily influenced by the natural history of the underlying neoplasms, rather than the SVT event. An aggressive management is recommended and a treatment algorithm based on the different MPN subtypes is proposed. Hydroxyurea is the cytoreductive drug of choice in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia, whereas ruxolitinib is indicated in intermediate and high-risk patients with myelofibrosis and in PV patients resistant or intolerant to hydroxyurea. The management of SVT in MPNs requires a multidisciplinary approach that may include a hematologist, a gastroenterologist, an interventional radiologist, and a surgeon. In the case of clinical deterioration despite pharmacological therapy, patients with SVT should be considered for invasive procedures or liver transplantation.
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