The materials employed in sport are of importance in several ways, since they are required to prevent injuries and at the same time improve performance, provide the appropriate performance environment, or even protect an existing injury and allow participation. This paper describes sports macroenvironments, i.e. planned artificial and equipped natural environments, and strike surfaces and their effect on support biomechanics and possible repercussions on the locomotor apparatus: natural surfaces (stabilised soils, natural grass cover), artificial surfaces (synthetic turf, bituminous conglomerates, synthetic coverings). The poles used in pole vaulting are taken as examples of changes in apparatus that have led to changes in style. As to sport equipment, footwear has been modified to suit the needs of individual disciplines. Here, too, the use of new materials has resulted in the production of specific shoes for every type of sport, athlete and surface and for the prevention of accidents. Ankle braces, insoles for the correction of foot support and taping are now thought by many workers to have lost much of their preventive importance, while remaining sound supports during treatment and rehabilitation. It is clear that the continual search for new materials improves the performance and recovery of athletes, but does not always avoid the risk of micro and macrotraumas. Standardisation of the quality control of materials will serve to ensure a development of research that takes both performance and prevention into account.
|Translated title of the contribution||Sports environments, materials and equipment|
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Journal of Sports Traumatology and Related Research|
|Publication status||Published - 1999|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation