SPOT3D: Spatial positioning toolbox for head markers using 3D scans

Gaia Amaranta Taberna, Roberto Guarnieri, Dante Mantini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Recent studies have highlighted the importance of an accurate individual head model for reliably using high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) as a brain imaging technique. Correct identification of sensor positions is fundamental for accurately estimating neural activity from hdEEG recordings. We previously introduced a method of automated localization and labelling of hdEEG sensors using an infrared colour-enhanced 3D scanner. Here, we describe an extension of this method, the spatial positioning toolbox for head markers using 3D scans (SPOT3D), which integrates a graphical user interface (GUI). This enables the correction of imprecisions in EEG sensor positioning and the inclusion of additional head markers. The toolbox was validated using 3D scan data collected in four participants wearing a 256-channel hdEEG cap. We quantified the misalignment between the 3D scan and the head shape, and errors in EEG sensor locations. We assessed these parameters after using the automated approach and after manually adjusting its results by means of the GUI. The GUI overcomes the main limitations of the automated method, yielding enhanced precision and reliability of head marker positioning.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12813
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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