Stability of Drugs of Abuse in Urine Samples at Room Temperature by Use of a Salts Mixture

Manuela Pellegrini, Silvia Graziano, Luisa Mastrobattista, Adele Minutillo, Francesco Paolo Busardo, Gianfranco Scarsella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: It has long been recognized that ensuring analyte stability is of crucial importance in the use of any quantitative bioanalytical method. As analyses are usually not performed directly after collection of the biological samples, but after these have been processed and stored, it is essential that analyte stability can be maintained at storage conditions to ensure that the obtained concentration results adequately reflect those directly after sampling. The conservation of urine samples in refrigerated/ frozen conditions is strongly recommended; but not always feasible. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of some well-known drugs of abuse methamphetamine (MA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), benzoylecgonine (BE), and morphine (MOR) in urine samples kept at room temperature by adding a salt mixture (sodium citrate, sodium ascorbate, borax).

METHODS: Two different urine samples were prepared with and without salt mixture, stored at room temperature and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at 0, 1, 7, 15, and 30 days after collection/preparation to look for eventual analyte degradation.

RESULTS: Methamphetamine showed no significant changes with respect to the time of collection/ preparation (T0) up to 7 days later (T7), with or without salt mixture addiction. Then a significant degradation occurred in both salted and non salted urine. BE decrease was observed starting from day 1 after sample collection in salted and not salted samples, respectively. Salt addition seemed to reduce at least the initial BE degradation, with a significant difference (p<0.001) at 7 and 15 days of storage. However, the degradation was not more prevented in salted samples at 30 days of storage. A 20% decrease of MOR concentration was observed starting from day 1 after collection/preparation, both in salted and not salted samples with no subsequent decrease. With regard to THCCOOH, a significant decrease was observed starting from 7 days after collection/preparation, with of without adding the salt mixture. However, when comparing salted versus non salted samples at each time point, a statistically significant difference was observed at 7 and 30 days of storage.

CONCLUSION: The results obtained indicate that the degradation of MA, THC-COOH and BE in urine samples kept at room temperature can be slowed by the addition of the salt mixture, whereas it seems to be ineffective in samples containing MOR. This evidence has to be taken into account, in the eventuality of using salted urine to prevent in a certain extent abuse of above-reported drugs of abuse.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)815-820
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Volume18
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

Street Drugs
Salts
Urine
Temperature
Methamphetamine
Morphine
Dronabinol
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Ascorbic Acid
benzoylecgonine

Keywords

  • Drugs of abuse
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
  • analyte stability
  • room temperature
  • salt mixture
  • urine sample

Cite this

Stability of Drugs of Abuse in Urine Samples at Room Temperature by Use of a Salts Mixture. / Pellegrini, Manuela; Graziano, Silvia; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Minutillo, Adele; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Scarsella, Gianfranco.

In: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Vol. 18, No. 10, 2017, p. 815-820.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{48bc35e1e4e94c94b8733b0ff364cfcb,
title = "Stability of Drugs of Abuse in Urine Samples at Room Temperature by Use of a Salts Mixture",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: It has long been recognized that ensuring analyte stability is of crucial importance in the use of any quantitative bioanalytical method. As analyses are usually not performed directly after collection of the biological samples, but after these have been processed and stored, it is essential that analyte stability can be maintained at storage conditions to ensure that the obtained concentration results adequately reflect those directly after sampling. The conservation of urine samples in refrigerated/ frozen conditions is strongly recommended; but not always feasible. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of some well-known drugs of abuse methamphetamine (MA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), benzoylecgonine (BE), and morphine (MOR) in urine samples kept at room temperature by adding a salt mixture (sodium citrate, sodium ascorbate, borax).METHODS: Two different urine samples were prepared with and without salt mixture, stored at room temperature and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at 0, 1, 7, 15, and 30 days after collection/preparation to look for eventual analyte degradation.RESULTS: Methamphetamine showed no significant changes with respect to the time of collection/ preparation (T0) up to 7 days later (T7), with or without salt mixture addiction. Then a significant degradation occurred in both salted and non salted urine. BE decrease was observed starting from day 1 after sample collection in salted and not salted samples, respectively. Salt addition seemed to reduce at least the initial BE degradation, with a significant difference (p<0.001) at 7 and 15 days of storage. However, the degradation was not more prevented in salted samples at 30 days of storage. A 20{\%} decrease of MOR concentration was observed starting from day 1 after collection/preparation, both in salted and not salted samples with no subsequent decrease. With regard to THCCOOH, a significant decrease was observed starting from 7 days after collection/preparation, with of without adding the salt mixture. However, when comparing salted versus non salted samples at each time point, a statistically significant difference was observed at 7 and 30 days of storage.CONCLUSION: The results obtained indicate that the degradation of MA, THC-COOH and BE in urine samples kept at room temperature can be slowed by the addition of the salt mixture, whereas it seems to be ineffective in samples containing MOR. This evidence has to be taken into account, in the eventuality of using salted urine to prevent in a certain extent abuse of above-reported drugs of abuse.",
keywords = "Drugs of abuse, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, analyte stability, room temperature, salt mixture, urine sample",
author = "Manuela Pellegrini and Silvia Graziano and Luisa Mastrobattista and Adele Minutillo and Busardo, {Francesco Paolo} and Gianfranco Scarsella",
note = "Copyright{\circledC} Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.2174/1389201019666171211155043",
language = "English",
volume = "18",
pages = "815--820",
journal = "Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology",
issn = "1389-2010",
publisher = "Bentham Science Publishers B.V.",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Stability of Drugs of Abuse in Urine Samples at Room Temperature by Use of a Salts Mixture

AU - Pellegrini, Manuela

AU - Graziano, Silvia

AU - Mastrobattista, Luisa

AU - Minutillo, Adele

AU - Busardo, Francesco Paolo

AU - Scarsella, Gianfranco

N1 - Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - BACKGROUND: It has long been recognized that ensuring analyte stability is of crucial importance in the use of any quantitative bioanalytical method. As analyses are usually not performed directly after collection of the biological samples, but after these have been processed and stored, it is essential that analyte stability can be maintained at storage conditions to ensure that the obtained concentration results adequately reflect those directly after sampling. The conservation of urine samples in refrigerated/ frozen conditions is strongly recommended; but not always feasible. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of some well-known drugs of abuse methamphetamine (MA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), benzoylecgonine (BE), and morphine (MOR) in urine samples kept at room temperature by adding a salt mixture (sodium citrate, sodium ascorbate, borax).METHODS: Two different urine samples were prepared with and without salt mixture, stored at room temperature and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at 0, 1, 7, 15, and 30 days after collection/preparation to look for eventual analyte degradation.RESULTS: Methamphetamine showed no significant changes with respect to the time of collection/ preparation (T0) up to 7 days later (T7), with or without salt mixture addiction. Then a significant degradation occurred in both salted and non salted urine. BE decrease was observed starting from day 1 after sample collection in salted and not salted samples, respectively. Salt addition seemed to reduce at least the initial BE degradation, with a significant difference (p<0.001) at 7 and 15 days of storage. However, the degradation was not more prevented in salted samples at 30 days of storage. A 20% decrease of MOR concentration was observed starting from day 1 after collection/preparation, both in salted and not salted samples with no subsequent decrease. With regard to THCCOOH, a significant decrease was observed starting from 7 days after collection/preparation, with of without adding the salt mixture. However, when comparing salted versus non salted samples at each time point, a statistically significant difference was observed at 7 and 30 days of storage.CONCLUSION: The results obtained indicate that the degradation of MA, THC-COOH and BE in urine samples kept at room temperature can be slowed by the addition of the salt mixture, whereas it seems to be ineffective in samples containing MOR. This evidence has to be taken into account, in the eventuality of using salted urine to prevent in a certain extent abuse of above-reported drugs of abuse.

AB - BACKGROUND: It has long been recognized that ensuring analyte stability is of crucial importance in the use of any quantitative bioanalytical method. As analyses are usually not performed directly after collection of the biological samples, but after these have been processed and stored, it is essential that analyte stability can be maintained at storage conditions to ensure that the obtained concentration results adequately reflect those directly after sampling. The conservation of urine samples in refrigerated/ frozen conditions is strongly recommended; but not always feasible. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of some well-known drugs of abuse methamphetamine (MA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), benzoylecgonine (BE), and morphine (MOR) in urine samples kept at room temperature by adding a salt mixture (sodium citrate, sodium ascorbate, borax).METHODS: Two different urine samples were prepared with and without salt mixture, stored at room temperature and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at 0, 1, 7, 15, and 30 days after collection/preparation to look for eventual analyte degradation.RESULTS: Methamphetamine showed no significant changes with respect to the time of collection/ preparation (T0) up to 7 days later (T7), with or without salt mixture addiction. Then a significant degradation occurred in both salted and non salted urine. BE decrease was observed starting from day 1 after sample collection in salted and not salted samples, respectively. Salt addition seemed to reduce at least the initial BE degradation, with a significant difference (p<0.001) at 7 and 15 days of storage. However, the degradation was not more prevented in salted samples at 30 days of storage. A 20% decrease of MOR concentration was observed starting from day 1 after collection/preparation, both in salted and not salted samples with no subsequent decrease. With regard to THCCOOH, a significant decrease was observed starting from 7 days after collection/preparation, with of without adding the salt mixture. However, when comparing salted versus non salted samples at each time point, a statistically significant difference was observed at 7 and 30 days of storage.CONCLUSION: The results obtained indicate that the degradation of MA, THC-COOH and BE in urine samples kept at room temperature can be slowed by the addition of the salt mixture, whereas it seems to be ineffective in samples containing MOR. This evidence has to be taken into account, in the eventuality of using salted urine to prevent in a certain extent abuse of above-reported drugs of abuse.

KW - Drugs of abuse

KW - Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

KW - analyte stability

KW - room temperature

KW - salt mixture

KW - urine sample

U2 - 10.2174/1389201019666171211155043

DO - 10.2174/1389201019666171211155043

M3 - Article

C2 - 29231136

VL - 18

SP - 815

EP - 820

JO - Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

JF - Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

SN - 1389-2010

IS - 10

ER -