AIMS: Bladder cancer represents the most common type of urothelial carcinoma, with a median overall survival of 12.5-15 months in the case of metastatic disease. We evaluated the role of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the management oligometastatic urothelial cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on patients with a maximum of five metastases were collected from three institutions. Concomitant systemic therapy was allowed. End points were the local control of treated metastases, distant progression-free survival (PFS), overall PFS and overall survival.
RESULTS: Data for 82 lesions and 61 patients were included. The primary tumour was located in the bladder in 82% of patients, followed by kidney pelvis (11.5%). The most common treated site was lung (40.2%). Twenty-nine (47.5%) and 14 (23%) patients received systemic therapy before and during SBRT, respectively. The median BED10 value was 78.7 Gy. The median follow-up was 17.2 months. Rates of local control at 1 and 2 years were 92% and 88.9%, respectively, with correlation with systemic therapy before SBRT (hazard ratio 2.62, P = 0.034). Overall PFS at 1 and 2 years was 47.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The number of metastases was a predictive factor (hazard ratio 2.65, P = 0.008). The median overall survival was 25.6 months. Total dose (hazard ratio 0.93, P = 0.003) and BED10 (hazard ratio 0.97, P = 0.006) were correlated with overall survival. No grade ≥2 adverse events were reported.
CONCLUSIONS: SBRT represents an effective and safe treatment in metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Prospective randomised trials are necessary to better evaluate the benefit on delaying the onset of new systemic therapies.