Steroids as part of combination treatment: The future for the management of macular edema?

F. Bandello, M. Battaglia Parodi, G. Tremolada, R. Lattanzio, U. De Benedetto, P. Iacono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Diabetic macular edema (DME), defined as a retinal thickening involving or approaching the center of the macula, plays a major role in vision loss related to diabetic retinopathy. This article presents an in-depth analysis of therapeutic perspectives on DME by means of an approach based on combination therapy with steroids. Corticosteroid drugs have been demonstrated to both inhibit the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the VEGF gene, and to have antiinflammatory properties. A treatment algorithm is provided regarding the management of DME. While grid laser photocoagulation remains the first-line therapy for focal vasogenic DME, diffuse DME can be effectively treated by means of intravitreal injections of corticosteroids. Recalcitrant DME can also be managed beneficially with intravitreal steroids. The management of DME is complex, and often multiple treatment approaches are needed. Each form of DME should be properly classified and specifically treated. The combination treatment has still an important role in the combined treatment options for DME.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-45
Number of pages5
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2010


  • Diabetic macular edema
  • Steroid treatment
  • Treatment algorithm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems


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