Strength and power changes of the human plantar flexors and knee extensors in response to resistance training in old age

A. Ferri, G. Scaglioni, M. Pousson, P. Capodaglio, J. Van Hoecke, M. V. Narici

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

200 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the improvements of muscle strength and power induced by a 16-week resistive programme in a population of 16 older men aged 65-81 years. Methods: Training was performed three times per week at an intensity of 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM) and consisted of both calf raise and leg press exercises. Before-, during- and after-training, maximum isometric and isokinetic torques, maximum power, 1RM, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and electromyographic activity (EMG) of the plantar flexors (PF) and knee extensors (KE) were examined. Results: For the KE and PF, respectively, training resulted in a 29.9 ± 4.4% (mean ± SE) and 21.6 ± 5.4% increase in 1RM (P <0.001-0.01), a 19.4 ± 4.3 and 12.4 ± 4.7% (P <0.001-0.05) increase in maximum isometric torque, and a 24.1 ± 6.3 and 33.1 ± 10.9% (P <0.05) increase in maximum muscle power, calculated from torque-angular velocity curves. The large increase in torque and power was partly accounted by a significant increase in the CSA of the PF (5.0 ± 0.7%) and KE (7.4 ± 0.7%), while no significant changes in integrated EMG activity of vastus lateralis and soleus muscles, and in extrapolated maximum shortening velocity were found. After training, a significant increase in torque/CSA (10.3 ± 4%, P <0.05) was found for the KE but not for the PF. Conclusion: Hence, hypertrophy cannot alone justify the increase in torque, and other factors, such as an increase in individual fibre-specific tension (in the case of KE), a decrease in antagonist muscles' coactivation, an improved co-ordination and an increased neural drive of the other heads of quadriceps may have contributed to the increments in strength. The significant increase in muscle power seems particularly noteworthy with respect to daily activities involving the displacement of the body over time, namely, the generation of muscle power.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-78
Number of pages10
JournalActa Physiologica Scandinavica
Volume177
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2003

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Resistance Training
Torque
Knee
Muscles
Quadriceps Muscle
Muscle Strength
Hypertrophy
Leg
Skeletal Muscle
Head
Exercise
Population

Keywords

  • Ageing
  • Hypertrophy
  • Muscle power
  • Muscle strength
  • Resistance training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology

Cite this

Strength and power changes of the human plantar flexors and knee extensors in response to resistance training in old age. / Ferri, A.; Scaglioni, G.; Pousson, M.; Capodaglio, P.; Van Hoecke, J.; Narici, M. V.

In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, Vol. 177, No. 1, 2003, p. 69-78.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ferri, A. ; Scaglioni, G. ; Pousson, M. ; Capodaglio, P. ; Van Hoecke, J. ; Narici, M. V. / Strength and power changes of the human plantar flexors and knee extensors in response to resistance training in old age. In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 2003 ; Vol. 177, No. 1. pp. 69-78.
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abstract = "Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the improvements of muscle strength and power induced by a 16-week resistive programme in a population of 16 older men aged 65-81 years. Methods: Training was performed three times per week at an intensity of 80{\%} of one repetition maximum (1RM) and consisted of both calf raise and leg press exercises. Before-, during- and after-training, maximum isometric and isokinetic torques, maximum power, 1RM, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and electromyographic activity (EMG) of the plantar flexors (PF) and knee extensors (KE) were examined. Results: For the KE and PF, respectively, training resulted in a 29.9 ± 4.4{\%} (mean ± SE) and 21.6 ± 5.4{\%} increase in 1RM (P <0.001-0.01), a 19.4 ± 4.3 and 12.4 ± 4.7{\%} (P <0.001-0.05) increase in maximum isometric torque, and a 24.1 ± 6.3 and 33.1 ± 10.9{\%} (P <0.05) increase in maximum muscle power, calculated from torque-angular velocity curves. The large increase in torque and power was partly accounted by a significant increase in the CSA of the PF (5.0 ± 0.7{\%}) and KE (7.4 ± 0.7{\%}), while no significant changes in integrated EMG activity of vastus lateralis and soleus muscles, and in extrapolated maximum shortening velocity were found. After training, a significant increase in torque/CSA (10.3 ± 4{\%}, P <0.05) was found for the KE but not for the PF. Conclusion: Hence, hypertrophy cannot alone justify the increase in torque, and other factors, such as an increase in individual fibre-specific tension (in the case of KE), a decrease in antagonist muscles' coactivation, an improved co-ordination and an increased neural drive of the other heads of quadriceps may have contributed to the increments in strength. The significant increase in muscle power seems particularly noteworthy with respect to daily activities involving the displacement of the body over time, namely, the generation of muscle power.",
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AU - Ferri, A.

AU - Scaglioni, G.

AU - Pousson, M.

AU - Capodaglio, P.

AU - Van Hoecke, J.

AU - Narici, M. V.

PY - 2003

Y1 - 2003

N2 - Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the improvements of muscle strength and power induced by a 16-week resistive programme in a population of 16 older men aged 65-81 years. Methods: Training was performed three times per week at an intensity of 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM) and consisted of both calf raise and leg press exercises. Before-, during- and after-training, maximum isometric and isokinetic torques, maximum power, 1RM, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and electromyographic activity (EMG) of the plantar flexors (PF) and knee extensors (KE) were examined. Results: For the KE and PF, respectively, training resulted in a 29.9 ± 4.4% (mean ± SE) and 21.6 ± 5.4% increase in 1RM (P <0.001-0.01), a 19.4 ± 4.3 and 12.4 ± 4.7% (P <0.001-0.05) increase in maximum isometric torque, and a 24.1 ± 6.3 and 33.1 ± 10.9% (P <0.05) increase in maximum muscle power, calculated from torque-angular velocity curves. The large increase in torque and power was partly accounted by a significant increase in the CSA of the PF (5.0 ± 0.7%) and KE (7.4 ± 0.7%), while no significant changes in integrated EMG activity of vastus lateralis and soleus muscles, and in extrapolated maximum shortening velocity were found. After training, a significant increase in torque/CSA (10.3 ± 4%, P <0.05) was found for the KE but not for the PF. Conclusion: Hence, hypertrophy cannot alone justify the increase in torque, and other factors, such as an increase in individual fibre-specific tension (in the case of KE), a decrease in antagonist muscles' coactivation, an improved co-ordination and an increased neural drive of the other heads of quadriceps may have contributed to the increments in strength. The significant increase in muscle power seems particularly noteworthy with respect to daily activities involving the displacement of the body over time, namely, the generation of muscle power.

AB - Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the improvements of muscle strength and power induced by a 16-week resistive programme in a population of 16 older men aged 65-81 years. Methods: Training was performed three times per week at an intensity of 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM) and consisted of both calf raise and leg press exercises. Before-, during- and after-training, maximum isometric and isokinetic torques, maximum power, 1RM, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and electromyographic activity (EMG) of the plantar flexors (PF) and knee extensors (KE) were examined. Results: For the KE and PF, respectively, training resulted in a 29.9 ± 4.4% (mean ± SE) and 21.6 ± 5.4% increase in 1RM (P <0.001-0.01), a 19.4 ± 4.3 and 12.4 ± 4.7% (P <0.001-0.05) increase in maximum isometric torque, and a 24.1 ± 6.3 and 33.1 ± 10.9% (P <0.05) increase in maximum muscle power, calculated from torque-angular velocity curves. The large increase in torque and power was partly accounted by a significant increase in the CSA of the PF (5.0 ± 0.7%) and KE (7.4 ± 0.7%), while no significant changes in integrated EMG activity of vastus lateralis and soleus muscles, and in extrapolated maximum shortening velocity were found. After training, a significant increase in torque/CSA (10.3 ± 4%, P <0.05) was found for the KE but not for the PF. Conclusion: Hence, hypertrophy cannot alone justify the increase in torque, and other factors, such as an increase in individual fibre-specific tension (in the case of KE), a decrease in antagonist muscles' coactivation, an improved co-ordination and an increased neural drive of the other heads of quadriceps may have contributed to the increments in strength. The significant increase in muscle power seems particularly noteworthy with respect to daily activities involving the displacement of the body over time, namely, the generation of muscle power.

KW - Ageing

KW - Hypertrophy

KW - Muscle power

KW - Muscle strength

KW - Resistance training

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