OBJECTIVE: Spreading depolarization (SD) is a transient self-propagating wave of neuronal and glial depolarization coupled with large membrane ionic changes and a subsequent depression of neuronal activity. Spreading depolarization in the cortex is implicated in migraine, stroke, and epilepsy. Conversely, spreading depolarization in the striatum, a brain structure deeply involved in motor control and in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology, has been poorly investigated.
METHODS: We characterized the participation of glutamatergic and dopaminergic transmission in the induction of striatal spreading depolarization by using a novel approach combining optical imaging, measurements of endogenous DA levels, and pharmacological and molecular analyses.
RESULTS: We found that striatal spreading depolarization requires the concomitant activation of D1-like DA and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, and it is reduced in experimental PD. Chronic l-dopa treatment, inducing dyskinesia in the parkinsonian condition, increases the occurrence and speed of propagation of striatal spreading depolarization, which has a direct impact on one of the signaling pathways downstream from the activation of D1 receptors.
CONCLUSION: Striatal spreading depolarization might contribute to abnormal basal ganglia activity in the dyskinetic condition and represents a possible therapeutic target. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.