Presteady-state and steady-state kinetics of human glutathione transferase P1-1 (EC 220.127.116.11) have been studied at pH 5.0 by using 7- chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, a poor co-substrate for this isoenzyme. Steady-state kinetics fits well with the simplest rapid equilibrium random sequential bi-bi mechanism and reveals a strong intrasubunit synergistic modulation between the GSH-binding site (G-site) and the hydrophobic binding site for the co-substrate (H-site); the affinity of the G-site for GSH increases about 30 times at saturating co-substrate and vice versa. Presteady-state experiments and thermodynamic data indicate that the rate-limiting step is a physical event and, probably, a structural transition of the ternary complex. Similar to that observed with 1-chloro- 2,4-dinitrobenzene (Ricci, G. Caccuri, A. M., Lo Bello, M., Rosato, N., Mei, G., Nicotra, M., Chiessi, E., Mazzetti, A. P., and Federici, G. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 16187-16192), this event may be related to the frequency of enzyme motions. The observed low, viscosity-independent k(cat) value suggests that these motions are slow and diffusion-independent for an increased internal viscosity. In fact, molecular modeling suggests that the hydroxyl group of Tyr-108, which resides in helix 4, may be in hydrogen bonding distance of the oxygen atom of this new substrate, thus yielding a less flexible H-site. This effect might be transmitted to the G-site via helix 4. In addition, a new homotropic behavior exhibited by 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2- oxa-1,3-diazole is found in Cys-47 mutants revealing a structural intersubunit communication between the two H-sites.
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