Subarachnoid Extension Predicts Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage Expansion

Andrea Morotti, Loris Poli, Eleonora Leuci, Federico Mazzacane, Paolo Costa, Valeria De Giuli, Elisa Candeloro, Giorgio Busto, Ilaria Casetta, Giuseppe Micieli, Anna Cavallini, Massimo Gamba, Mauro Magoni, Alessandro Padovani, Alessandro Pezzini, Enrico Fainardi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and Purpose- We investigated whether subarachnoid extension (SAHE) of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with hematoma expansion (HE). Methods- Retrospective analysis of patients with primary spontaneous ICH admitted at 3 academic hospitals in Italy. The study population was divided into a development and a replication cohort. SAHE was rated on baseline noncontrast computed tomography by investigators blinded to clinical data. The main outcome of interest was HE, defined as ICH growth> 33% mL and/or >6 mL. Predictors of HE were explored with multivariable logistic regression stratified by ICH location (lobar versus nonlobar). Results- A total of 360 and 192 patients were included in the development and replication cohort, respectively. SAHE was identified with good inter-rater reliability (K=0.82), and its frequency was 27.8% in the development and 24.5% in the replication cohort. In univariate analysis, HE was more common in patients with SAHE (52.0% versus 27.3%; P<0.001). When controlling for confounders in logistic regression, SAHE was an independent predictor of lobar HE (odds ratio, 6.00 [95% CI, 2.16-16.64]; P=0.001) whereas there was no association with HE in nonlobar ICH (odds ratio, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.17-1.84]; P=0.334). The increased risk of HE in lobar ICH with SAHE was confirmed in the replication cohort (odds ratio, 3.46 [95% CI, 1.07-11.20]; P=0.038). Conclusions- SAHE predicts HE in lobar ICH. This may improve the stratification of HE risk in clinical practice or future trials targeting HE. Further research is needed to confirm our findings and characterize the underlying biological mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1470-6
Number of pages7
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Mar 23 2020


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