Subcortical brain volume, regional cortical thickness, and cortical surface area across disorders: Findings from the ENIGMA ADHD, ASD, and OCD working groups: American Journal of Psychiatry

P.S.W. Boedhoe, D. van Rooij, M. Hoogman, J.W.R. Twisk, L. Schmaal, Y. Abe, P. Alonso, S.H. Ameis, A. Anikin, A. Anticevic, C. Arango, P.D. Arnold, P. Asherson, F. Assogna, G. Auzias, T. Banaschewski, A. Baranov, M.C. Batistuzzo, S. Baumeister, R. Baur-StreubelM. Behrmann, M.A. Bellgrove, F. Benedetti, J.C. Beucke, J. Biederman, I. Bollettini, A. Bose, J. Bralten, I.E. Bramati, D. Brandeis, S. Brem, B.P. Brennan, G.F. Busatto, S. Calderoni, A. Calvo, R. Calvo, F.X. Castellanos, M. Cercignani, T.M. Chaim-Avancini, K.C. Chantiluke, Y. Cheng, K.I.K. Cho, A. Christakou, D. Coghill, A. Conzelmann, A.I. Cubillo, A.M. Dale, S. Dallaspezia, E. Daly, D. Denys, C. Deruelle, A. Di Martino, I. Dinstein, A.E. Doyle, S. Durston, E.A. Earl, C. Ecker, S. Ehrlich, B.A. Ely, J.N. Epstein, T. Ethofer, D.A. Fair, A.J. Fallgatter, S.V. Faraone, J. Fedor, X. Feng, J.D. Feusner, J. Fitzgerald, K.D. Fitzgerald, J.-P. Fouche, C.M. Freitag, E.A. Fridgeirsson, T. Frodl, M.C. Gabel, L. Gallagher, T. Gogberashvili, I. Gori, P. Gruner, D.A. Gürsel, S. Haar, J. Haavik, G.B. Hall, N.A. Harrison, C.A. Hartman, D.J. Heslenfeld, Y. Hirano, P.J. Hoekstra, M.Q. Hoexter, S. Hohmann, M.F. Høvik, H. Hu, C. Huyser, N. Jahanshad, M. Jalbrzikowski, A. James, J. Janssen, F. Jaspers-Fayer, T.L. Jernigan, D. Kapilushniy, B. Kardatzki, G. Karkashadze, N. Kathmann, C. Kaufmann, C. Kelly, S. Khadka, J.A. King, K. Koch, G. Kohls, K. Konrad, M. Kuno, J. Kuntsi, G. Kvale, J.S. Kwon, L. Lázaro, S. Lera-Miguel, K.-P. Lesch, L. Hoekstra, Y. Liu, C. Lochner, M.R. Louza, B. Luna, A.J. Lundervold, C.B. Malpas, P. Marques, R. Marsh, I. Martínez-Zalacaín, D. Mataix-Cols, P. Mattos, H. McCarthy, J. McGrath, M.A. Mehta, J.M. Menchón, M. Mennes, M.M. Martinho, P.S. Moreira, A. Morer, P. Morgado, F. Muratori, C.M. Murphy, D.G.M. Murphy, A. Nakagawa, T. Nakamae, T. Nakao, L. Namazova-Baranova, J.C. Narayanaswamy, R. Nicolau, J.T. Nigg, S.E. Novotny, E.L. Nurmi, E.O. Weiss, R.L. O'Gorman Tuura, K. O'Hearn, J. O'Neill, J. Oosterlaan, B. Oranje, Y. Paloyelis, M. Parellada, P. Pauli, C. Perriello, J. Piacentini, F. Piras, K.J. Plessen, O. Puig, J. Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Y.C. Janardhan Reddy, A. Reif, L. Reneman, A. Retico, P.G.P. Rosa, K. Rubia, O.G. Rus, Y. Sakai, A. Schrantee, L. Schwarz, L.J.S. Schweren, J. Seitz, P. Shaw, D. Shook, T.J. Silk, H. Blair Simpson, N. Skokauskas, J.C.S. Vila, A. Solovieva, N. Soreni, C. Soriano-Mas, G. Spalletta, E.R. Stern, M.C. Stevens, S. Evelyn Stewart, G. Sudre, P.R. Szeszko, L. Tamm, M.J. Taylor, D.F. Tolin, M. Tosetti, F. Tovar-Moll, A. Tsuchiyagaito, T.G.M. van Erp, G.A. van Wingen, A. Vance, G. Venkatasubramanian, O. Vilarroya, Y. Vives-Gilabert, G.G. von Polier, S. Walitza, G.L. Wallace, Z. Wang, T. Wolfers, Y.N. Yoncheva, J.-Y. Yun, M.V. Zanetti, F. Zhou, G.C. Ziegler, K.C. Zierhut, M.P. Zwiers, P.M. Thompson, D.J. Stein, J. Buitelaar, B. Franke, O.A. van den Heuvel, ENIGMA ADHD working group, ENIGMA ASD working group, ENIGMA OCD working group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are common neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently co-occur. The authors sought to directly compare these disorders using structural brain imaging data from ENIGMA consortium data. Methods: Structural T1-weighted whole-brain MRI data from healthy control subjects (N=5,827) and from patients with ADHD (N=2,271), ASD (N=1,777), and OCD (N=2,323) from 151 cohorts worldwide were analyzed using standardized processing protocols. The authors examined subcortical volume, cortical thickness, and cortical surface area differences within a mega-analytical framework, pooling measures extracted from each cohort. Analyses were performed separately for children, adolescents, and adults, using linear mixed-effects models adjusting for age, sex, and site (and intracranial volume for subcortical and surface area measures). Results: No shared differences were found among all three disorders, and shared differences between any two disorders did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Children with ADHD compared with those with OCD had smaller hippocampal volumes, possibly influenced by IQ. Children and adolescents with ADHD also had smaller intracranial volume than control subjects and those with OCD or ASD. Adults with ASD showed thicker frontal cortices compared with adult control subjects and other clinical groups. No OCD-specific differences were observed across different age groups and surface area differences among all disorders in childhood and adulthood. Conclusions: The study findings suggest robust but subtle differences across different age groups among ADHD, ASD, and OCD. ADHD-specific intracranial volume and hippocampal differences in children and adolescents, and ASD-specific cortical thickness differences in the frontal cortex in adults, support previous work emphasizing structural brain differences in these disorders. © 2020 American Psychiatric Association. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)834-843
Number of pages10
JournalAm. J. Psychiatry
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • adult
  • Article
  • attention deficit disorder
  • autism
  • brain size
  • child
  • cohort analysis
  • controlled study
  • cortical surface area
  • cortical thickness (brain)
  • demography
  • effect size
  • female
  • hippocampus
  • human
  • image processing
  • intelligence quotient
  • major clinical study
  • male
  • nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
  • obsessive compulsive disorder
  • priority journal
  • quality control
  • subcortical brain volume
  • surface area
  • adolescent
  • diagnostic imaging
  • human development
  • mental disease
  • neuroimaging
  • organ size
  • pathology
  • pathophysiology
  • physiology
  • procedures
  • psychology
  • research
  • system analysis
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Cerebrum
  • Child
  • Female
  • Human Development
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neuroimaging
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Organ Size
  • Psychopathology
  • Research Report
  • Systems Analysis


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