Incorporation of novel agents into auto-SCT for patients with multiple myeloma has led to improvement in their outcomes. However, the effects of new drugs, either single or combined, on PBSC mobilization have not been fully evaluated, particularly in phase 3 clinical studies. We analyzed the impact of two novel agent-based induction treatments in patients enrolled in the GIMEMA MMY-3006 study comparing bortezomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone (VTD) versus thalidomide and dexamethasone (TD) in preparation for double auto-SCT. Results showed that a short-term induction therapy with VTD did not adversely affect CD34 + cell yields as compared with TD (9.75 vs 10.76 × 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg, P=0.220). For poor mobilizers (6 CD34 + cells/kg), 5-year rates of time to progression (TTP), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly shorter than for successful mobilizers (TTP:17 vs 48%, P+ cells. The number of collected PBSCs predicted better outcomes after auto-SCT and VTD overcame the negative impact of a poor stem cell mobilization.
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