Sucralfate versus mesalazine versus hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute radiation proctitis during conformal radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma: A randomized study

Giuseppe Sanguineti, Paola Franzone, Michela Marcenaro, Franca Foppiano, Vito Vitale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To assess whether the topical use of steroids or 5-aminosaticytic acid (5-ASA) is superior to sucralfate in preventing acute rectal toxicity during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) to 76 Gy. Patients and Methods: Patients undergoing 3DCRT for prostate carcinoma at our institution were offered to be randomized to sucralfate 3 g in 15 ml susgension enema (Antepsin®), mesalazine 4 g gel enema (Enterasyn®), or hydrocortisone 100 mg foam enema (Colifoam®). Randomization was blind to the treating physician but not to the patient. Sucralfate was chosen as control arm. Topical treatment had to be performed once daily, starting on day 1 of 3DCRT. Acute rectal toxicity was scored weekly according to RTOG criteria. Time to occurrence of grade 2+ acute rectal toxicity was taken as endpoint. Results: The trial was opened in August 1999, and after the first 24 patients had been treated, arm 2 was discontinued because of eight patients receiving mesatazine, seven actually developed acute rectal toxicity (five patients grade 3 and two patients grade 2). Until May 2001, 134 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to sucralfate (63 patients), mesalazine (eight patients) or hydrocortisone (63 patients). The cumulative incidence of acute rectal toxicity at the end of treatment by arm is 61.9 ± 6.3%, 87.5 ± 11.7%, and 52.4 ± 6.2% for arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The difference between the mesalazine group and the sucralfate group is highly significant (hazard ratio [HR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-5.7; p = 0.03). At both uni- and multivariate analysis taking into account several patients and treatment covadates, the difference between hydrocortisone and sucralfate is not significant (HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.2; p = 0.2). Conclusion: Topical mesalazine is contraindicated during radiotherapy. Hydrocortisone enema is not superior to sucralfate in preventing acute rectal toxicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)464-470
Number of pages7
JournalStrahlentherapie und Onkologie
Volume179
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2003

Keywords

  • Acute rectal toxicity
  • Prophylaxis
  • Radiotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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