Rationale Pathological response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) represents a commonly used predictor of survival in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and the need to identify markers that predict response to NAC is constantly increasing. Aim of this study was to evaluate the potential usefulness of PET imaging with [18F]FDG and [18F]FLT for the discrimination of TNBC responders to Paclitaxel (PTX) therapy compared to the response assessed by an adapted Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria based on tumor volume (Tumor Volume Response). Methods Nu/nu mice bearing TNBC lesions of different size were evaluated with [18F]FDG and [18F] FLT PET before and after PTX treatment. SUVmax, Metabolic Tumor Volume (MTV) and Total Lesion Glycolysis (TLG) and Proliferation (TLP) were assessed using a graph-based random walk algorithm. Results We found that in our TNBC model the variation of [18F]FDG and [18F]FLT SUVmaxsimilarly defined tumor response to therapy and that SUVmaxvariation represented the most accurate parameter. Response evaluation using Tumor Volume Response (TVR) showed that the effectiveness of NAC with PTX was completely independent from lesions size at baseline. Conclusions Our study provided interesting results in terms of sensitivity and specificity of PET in TNBC, revealing the similar performances of [18F]FDG and [18F]FLT in the identification of responders to Paclitaxel. © 2018 Raccagni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.