Supraorbital keyhole approach: Pure endoscopic and endoscope-assisted perspective

Mohamed M. Arnaout, Sabino Luzzi, Renato Galzio, Khaled Aziz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To assess the assumed advantages of pure endoscopic and endoscope-assisted methods for the supraorbital keyhole approach. The aim is to demonstrate visibility and accessibility of the pure endoscope approach as a possible standard approach for the supraorbital keyhole approach. Patients and Methods: We performed eight dissections on four cadaver heads using an operating microscope, an endoscope, and neuronavigation. The visibility and accessibility of the anterior and middle cranial fossae regions were compared for each. Special structures were defined to assess their preservation in both approaches. We used pure endoscopy on the eight sides and with a microscope on those same eight sides. Accessibility was quantified for key structures using linear measurements taken with the navigation system. In addition, we present clinical cases in which an endoscope-assisted supraorbital approach was employed. Results: Our measurements have been reported for each side in the formalin-fixed heads as the mean ± SD (in mm) from the bone margin to selected regions. Moreover, image analysis was performed using ImageJ software to compare selected surface area measurements between the endoscope and microscope images on each side for all cadaveric available specimens. There were no significant statistical differences between visualization of the selected areas. This means that by visual analysis both endoscopic and microscopic images can provide the surgeon nearly the same visibility and accessibility of a selected region. Conclusion: A pure endoscopic method can be used to conduct the supraorbital keyhole approach when the endoscope is used as a primary tool. Our recommendation is to use the measurements described in this study for preoperative planning of the keyhole approach. We believe that with advances in neuro-endoscope technology, and instrumentations, the endoscopic approach may replace the microscopic approach in the near future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105623
JournalClinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020


  • Endoscope-assisted
  • Endoscopy
  • Outcome
  • Skull base
  • Supraorbital keyhole

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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