Surface-structure-regulated cell-membrane penetration by monolayer-protected nanoparticles

Ayush Verma, Oktay Uzun, Yuhua Hu, Ying Hu, Hee Sun Han, Nicki Watson, Suelin Chen, Darrell J. Irvine, Francesco Stellacci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Nanoscale objects are typically internalized by cells into membrane-bounded endosomes and fail to access the cytosolic cell machinery. Whereas some biomacromolecules may penetrate or fuse with cell membranes without overt membrane disruption, no synthetic material of comparable size has shown this property yet. Cationic nano-objects pass through cell membranes by generating transient holes, a process associated with cytotoxicity. Studies aimed at generating cell-penetrating nanomaterials have focused on the effect of size, shape and composition. Here, we compare membrane penetration by two nanoparticle isomers with similar composition (same hydrophobic content), one coated with subnanometre striations of alternating anionic and hydrophobic groups, and the other coated with the same moieties but in a random distribution. We show that the former particles penetrate the plasma membrane without bilayer disruption, whereas the latter are mostly trapped in endosomes. Our results offer a paradigm for analysing the fundamental problem of cell-membrane-penetrating bio- and macro-molecules.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)588-595
Number of pages8
JournalNature Materials
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


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