Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are relatively rare entities, representing approximately 1% to 2% of all pancreatic tumors. Owing to their rarity as well as their relatively indolent natural history, treatment approaches are not yet standardized. A formal pancreatic resection is usually mandatory for large and localized sporadic pancreatic tumors or in the presence of symptoms. However, in small and asymptomatic lesions, a conservative approach consisting in a careful wait-and-see policy is going to appear as more appropriate, particularly when, to remove the lesion, an aggressive surgical procedure is required, such as pancreaticoduodenectomy or distal splenopancreatectomy, depending on the localization of the tumor. Surgery has also a significant role in locally advanced and metastatic forms. In the setting of MEN 1 syndrome or Von-Hippel Lindau disease, the tumor size and the possible symptoms should be considered in the evaluation of a proper treatment.
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