Background: Scalp reconstruction in cases of melanoma excision can be challenging due to specific functional and aesthetic outcome requirements. Reconstructive techniques reported in the literature were reviewed to establish whether a surgical algorithm for the management of melanoma of the scalp may be deduced. Methods: A literature search was conducted to evaluate reconstructive strategies after melanoma wide local excision of the scalp according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Inclusion criteria were English language, diagnosis of melanoma of the scalp, and the presence of the following data: characteristics of the residual defect (width and depth), type of reconstruction, follow-up, and surgical outcome. Results: Six hundred twenty-five records were identified after excluding the duplicates; 48 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, and 17 records were selected for inclusion. A total of 39 patients were included in the review. The majority of patients (n = 20) underwent skin grafting subsequent to dermal regeneration template positioning. Local flaps (n = 10), free flaps (n = 7), skin grafting alone (n = 1), and dermal regeneration template positioning alone (n = 1) were less frequent. Conclusions: Numerous reconstructive strategies for the scalp are described in the literature. Melanoma patients present a greater variability in terms of general health conditions and social needs that must be taken into account while choosing the most suitable procedure.
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