Surgical treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis in children: Our experience and a narrative review

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Non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis (NTML) accounts for about 95% of the cases of head-and-neck mycobacterial lymphadenitis, and its prevalence has been increasing in the Western world. The diagnostic work-up can be challenging, and differential diagnoses such as tuberculous and suppurative lymphadenitis need to be considered. It may, therefore, not be diagnosed until the disease is in a late stage, by which time it becomes locally destructive and is characterized by a chronically discharging sinus. The treatment options include a medical approach, a wait-and-see policy, and surgery, with the last being considered the treatment of choice despite the high risk of iatrogenic nerve lesions. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of pediatric, head-and-neck NTML based on the literature and our own experience, with particular emphasis on the impact and limitations of surgery.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2058738418806413
JournalInternational Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2018



  • children
  • head and neck
  • lymphadenitis
  • non-tuberculous mycobacteria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology

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