Surrogate endpoints and renal protection: Focus on microalbuminuria

M. Epstein, H. H. Parving, L. M. Ruilope, P. A. Van Zwieten, H. H. Parving, G. Mancia, E. A. Rose, L. Hansson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a major public health problem worldwide. The past decade has witnessed increased interest and investigative attention on therapeutic manoeuvres to retard the progression of renal disease. Reduction of albuminuria is regarded as a surrogate endpoint, because this phenomenon seems to be associated with preservation of GFR (principal endpoint) in diabetic nephropathy. Studies from our laboratory suggest that reduction in albuminuria during ACE inhibition constitutes a predictor of an attenuated rate of decline in GFR in early diabetic nephropathy. Because the rate of decline in kidney function is used to assess prognosis and the efficacy of therapy on progression of renal disease, a valid method for the determination of GFR is essential. During the last two decades, several radioactive and non-radioactive filtration markers have been validated and found to be both accurate and precise compared to inulin. Plasma clearance of such filtration markers is frequently applied in clinical trials in diabetic nephropathy because patients suffering from this complication frequently also suffer from diabetic cystopathy, precluding measurements of urine volume. Measurements of serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, calculated creatinine clearance by use of the Cockroft-Gault formula must all be regarded as surrogate measurements for glomerular filtration rate. Consequently, care must be taken to select appropriate filtration markers in order to rigorously evaluate therapeutic trials in progressive renal disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)52-57
Number of pages6
JournalBlood Pressure, Supplement
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1997


  • ACE inhibitors
  • Calcium antagonists
  • End-stage renal disease
  • Microalbuminuria
  • Renal protection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Internal Medicine


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