Sustained fecal-oral human-to-human transmission following a zoonotic event

Miranda de Graaf, Relja Beck, Simone M. Caccio, Birgitta Duim, Pieter LA Fraaij, Françoise S. Le Guyader, Marc Lecuit, Jacques Le Pendu, Emmie de Wit, Constance Schultsz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Bacterial, viral and parasitic zoonotic pathogens that transmit via the fecal-oral route have a major impact on global health. However, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of such pathogens from the animal reservoir and their persistence in the human population are poorly understood. Here, we present a framework of human-to-human transmission of zoonotic pathogens that considers the factors relevant for fecal-oral human-to-human transmission route at the levels of host, pathogen, and environment. We discuss current data gaps and propose future research directions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Opinion in Virology
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology


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