Sympathomodulation in congestive heart failure: From drugs to devices

G. Grassi, G. Seravalle, M. Esler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Indirect and direct approaches to assess sympathetic neural function in man have shown that congestive heart failure is characterized by a marked adrenergic overdrive. Although compensatory in the initial phases of the disease, with time the sympathetic overactivity exerts adverse cardiovascular effects, favoring the disease progression and promoting the occurrence of non-fatal and fatal cardiovascular events. This explains why the adrenergic overactivity has become an important target of the therapeutic interventions adopted in the managementof the disease. The present paper will examine the impact of therapeutic approaches, used in the management of heart failure, on the sympathetic activation characterizing the disease. After a brief mention of the sympathetic effects of non-pharmacological interventions and procedural approches, particular emphasis will be given to the effects of pharmacological interventions and device treatments (renal denervation and carotid baroreceptor stimulation), which became in recent years a promising tool for the management of the disease. The clinical implications as well as the unsolved aspects related to the sympathomodulatory interventions in heart failure management will be finally discussed.

Original languageItalian
Pages (from-to)118-125
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Cite this