Synergistic stimulation of interleukin 6 release and gene expression by phorbol esters and interleukin 1β in rat cortical astrocytes: Role of protein kinase C activation and blockade

M. Grimaldi, R. Arcone, G. Ciliberto, G. Schettini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The involvement of protein kinase C and its interaction with interleukin 1β in the control of interleukin 6 release by cortical astrocytes was studied. The blockade of protein kinase C catalytic domain, by staurosporine, as well as the desensitization of protein kinase C by short-term phorbol 12- myristate 13-acetate pretreatment, increased the basal release of interleukin 6 by rat cortical astrocytes, whereas calphostin C, an antagonist of phorbol ester binding on protein kinase C regulatory domain, did not affect the basal release of the cytokine. The activation of protein kinase C by phorbol 12- myristate 13-acetate enhanced concentration- and time-dependently interleukin 6 release. This stimulatory action of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was significantly reduced by staurosporine, by calphostin C, and by the desensitization of protein kinase C. Interleukin 1β increased interleukin 6 release in a concentration-related manner. Protein kinase C inhibition, by staurosporine or desensitization, potentiated severalfold, whereas calphostin C reduced interleukin 1β stimulation of interleukin 6 release. The treatment of cortical astrocytes with both interleukin 1β (3 ng/ml) and phorbol 12- myristate 13-acetate (10 nM) caused a synergistic stimulation of interleukin 6 release and its gene expression, an effect that was not relieved by either 20 nM staurosporine or by calphostin C but was slightly affected by protein kinase C desensitization. In conclusion, our data show that in rat cortical astrocytes the basal release of interleukin 6 is under a tonic inhibition exerted by a protein kinase C isoform or isoforms sensitive to blockade by staurosporine and desensitization but insensitive to calphostin C. Interleukin 1β stimulated interleukin 6 secretion via a mechanism that is also negatively modulated by a protein kinase C isoform or isoforms sensitive to staurosporine and desensitization. Finally, we showed that interleukin 1β and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate synergistically stimulated interleukin 6 release and its gene expression, operating in a manner insensitive to protein kinase C blockers and slightly reduced by protein kinase C desensitization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1945-1953
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neurochemistry
Volume64
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1995

Keywords

  • Astrocytes
  • Interleukin 1β
  • Interleukin 6
  • Phorbol esters
  • Protein kinase C
  • Staurosporine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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