Systematic review of the impact of appropriate versus inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy on outcomes of patients with severe bacterial infections

Matteo Bassetti, Jordi Rello, Francesco Blasi, Herman Goossens, Giovanni Sotgiu, Lara Tavoschi, Evan J. Zasowski, Mick R. Arber, Rachael McCool, Jacoby V. Patterson, Christopher M. Longshaw, Sara Lopes, Davide Manissero, Sean T. Nguyen, Keiko Tone, Stefano Aliberti

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

We investigated the impact of appropriate versus inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy on the clinical outcomes of patients with severe bacterial infections as part of a systematic review and meta-analyses assessing the impact of delay in appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Literature searches of MEDLINE and Embase, conducted on 24 July 2018, identified studies published after 2007 reporting the impact of delay in appropriate antibiotic therapy for hospitalised adult patients with bacterial infections. Results were statistically pooled for outcomes including mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS) and treatment failure. Subgroup analyses were explored by site of infection where data permitted. Inclusion criteria were met by 145 studies, of which 114 reported data on the impact of appropriate versus inappropriate initial therapy. In the pooled analysis, rates of mortality were significantly in favour of appropriate therapy [odds ratio (OR) = 0.44, 95% CI 0.38–0.50]. Across eight studies, LOS was shorter with appropriate therapy compared with inappropriate therapy [mean difference (MD) −2.54 days (95% CI −5.30 to 0.23)], but not significantly so. The incidence of treatment failure was significantly lower in patients who received appropriate therapy compared with patients who received inappropriate therapy (six studies: OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.16–0.66) as was mean hospital costs (four studies: MD −7.38 thousand US$ or Euros, 95% CI −14.14 to −0.62). Initiation of appropriate versus inappropriate antibiotics can reduce mortality, reduce treatment failure and decrease LOS, highlighting the importance of broad‑spectrum empirical therapy and rapid diagnostics for early identification of the causative pathogen. [Study registration: PROSPERO: CRD42018104669]

Original languageEnglish
Article number106184
JournalInternational Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Volume56
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020

Keywords

  • Appropriate antibiotic therapy
  • Empirical therapy
  • Length of stay
  • Mortality rate
  • Treatment failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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