Retinoic acid (RA) has profound effects on cell growth and differentiation. Its receptors are members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily, which regulates nuclear transcription and gene expression by binding specific response elements. Protein kinase C (PKC) is activated during signal transduction initiated by a variety of membrane receptors. Using a RA-responsive element and reporter gene construct transfected into a T cell, we found: 1) T cell activation and PKC activators enhance transactivation by RA, 2) down-regulation of PKC protein has little effect on RA transactivation but abolishes superinduction by phorbol ester, which is restored by cotransfection of a PKCα-expression vector, and 3) cotransfection of dominant-negative c-jun does not prevent superinduction by phorbol ester. Together, these data demonstrate that PKC can modulate RA signal transduction, apparently without involvement of AP-1, and provide a new example of cross-talk between signal transduction pathways.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism