Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) represents a potential curative strategy for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) relapsing after autologous SCT (ASCT), but the incidence of disease relapse is still high. We performed a retrospective study on 64 patients with HL relapsing after ASCT to compare outcomes after HLA-identical SCT (HLAid-SCT; n = 34) and haploidentical SCT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) (Haplo-SCT; n = 30). All patients engrafted, with a significantly shorter median time for neutrophil and platelet engraftment after HLAid compared with Haplo-SCT (14 days versus 19 days and 11 days versus 23 days, respectively; P < .005). With a median follow-up of 47 months, 3-year overall survival (OS), 3 -year progression-free survival (PFS), and 1-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) were 53%, 44% and 17%, respectively. Recipients of Haplo-SCT were less likely to experience disease relapse (3-year cumulative incidence of relapse, 13% versus 62%; P = .0001) and chronic graft- versus-host disease (GVHD; 3% versus 32%; P = .003), resulting in improved PFS (60% versus 29%; P = .04) and GVHD-free/relapse-free survival (47% versus 17%; P = .06). The 3-year OS did not differ between the 2 groups (56% versus 54%; P not significant), and NRM was higher after Haplo-SCT, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (26% versus 9%; P = .09). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, receipt of Haplo-SCT (hazard ratio [HR], .17; P = .02) and achieving optimal disease control (complete remission before SCT: HR, .6; P < .0001) were the only independent variables associated with a reduced risk of disease relapse. Haplo-SCT is a valid option for patients with HL relapsing after ASCT, with a reduced incidence of relapse compared with HLAid SCT.
- Journal Article